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There are many causes of kidney disease, which represents a growing health-care problem in Canada. The two main causes of kidney disease in Canada are diabetes and high blood pressure.

Other common causes include:

  • vascular disease which is a hardening of the arteries
  • glomerulonephritis, the inflammation of the kidney filtering units
  • polycystic kidney disease (cysts in the kidney)
  • drug-induced kidney failure
  • pyelonephritis which is an infection in the kidney
  • blockage of the flow of urine , also called a urinary tract obstruction
  • other rare genetic diseases

Stages of Kidney Disease

Stages of Kidney Disease
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 (end stage)
Kidney
Function
>90% 60-89% 30-59% 15-30% <15%
Symptoms none none Fatigue
Poor appetite
Mild anemia
Increased fatigue Nausea
Anemia
Itchy skin
Poor sleep
Shortness of breath
Vomiting
Itchy skin
Leg cramps
Treatment Identify cause, try to reverse it or minimize kidney damage Monitor creatinine, blood pressure, blood sugar Teach patient about disease and treatment options Plan & create access for dialysis &/or start workup for transplant Start renal replacement therapy-dialysis transplantation

Kidney Failure is when the kidney can no longer filter blood properly, and toxic waste products and fluid build up in the blood.